That's a lot to answer. The short answers are the 55-300 would be for things that are far away. 300mm on crop sensor camera like the D5100 would be good for things that are probably up to 100 to 150 feet away. Sure you could crop in for things farther away, but image quality will degrade of course.
A fisheye lens is a rather specialized lens. I wouldn't recommend getting that unless you really know you have a specific use for it. A normal wide angle lense would probably serve you much better unless, again, you know you have a very specific use that you will need it for a lot.
Other than that learn how to use the camera in the different modes (A, P, S, and M). You'll be much better off if you don't use the Auto modes and you understand why the other modes are used. For basic camera function understanding and other general topics, Ken Rockwell's site is actually very useful. He explains things in pretty simple terms. He has some strange opinions on some things, but he just writes that stuff to get views. The technical information on most things is pretty good.
Use that to get a good basic understanding of how to work the camera and how ISO, aperture, and shutter speed interact.